If you must know one thing about fiber optic cable, it’s the difference between single-mode and multimode fibers. Because of different fiber diameter of their cores, they have different applications. Single-mode fiber cable is preferred to use in long distance, high bandwidth runs, and multimode fiber cable is often used for short distance applications. However, a fiber optic network is not as simple as using only one type of fiber. Thus, we usually need mode conversion, especially MMF-to-SMF conversion during the transmission. Mode conversion between multimode and single-mode fibers is typically required when network distance exceeds the limit of multimode fiber. In addition, MMF-to-SMF conversion is also required depending on the equipment and connectivity type in the network. For instance, lower cost legacy equipment uses multimode port, and connectivity is required for single-mode equipment; or a building has multimode equipment, while the connection to the service provider is single-mode, etc.